Operation Research Question Paper

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Operation Research

MCA304Operation Research
Subject CodeSubject NameTeaching Scheme (Contact Hours per week)Credits Assigned
MCA304Operation Research040404
Examination Scheme
TheoryTerm WorkPractOralTotal
Internal AssessmentEnd Sem. Exam.

[ Once in a semester ]

Test 1Test 2Average


Objectives   Operations research is a scientific approach to analyzing problems and making decisions. It uses mathematics and mathematical modeling on computers to forecast the implications of various choices and identify the best alternatives.

Outcomes      Operations research methodology is applied to a broad range of problems in both the      public and private sectors. Many problems deal with the allocation of scarce human resources, money, materials, equipment or facilities. Applications include staff scheduling, vehicle routing, warehouse location, product distribution, quality control, traffic light phasing, police patrolling, preventive maintenance scheduling, economic forecasting, design of experiments, power plant fuel allocation, stock portfolio optimization, cost- effective environmental protection, inventory control and university course scheduling.

Unit No                                                                        Contents                                                              No of. Hrs.


Unit I                 Nature  of  Operation  Research  :  History  ,Nature  of  OR  ,Impact  of       OR

,Application Areas

Unit II                Overview  of  modeling  approach  Formulating  the  problem,   Constructing  a mathematical model, Deriving a solution, Testing a model and the solution, Establishing control over the solution, Implementation issues

Unit III              Linear  Programming  :Introduction  ,Graphical  solution ,Graphical sensitivity analysis ,The standard form of linear programming problems ,Basic feasible solutions ,Simplex algorithm ,Artificial    variables ,Big M and two phase method

,Solution to Problems based onDegeneracy, Alternative optima ,Unbounded solutions ,Infeasible solutions

Unit IV              Dual  Problem  :Relation  between  primal  and  dual  problems,    Dual  simplex method, Sensitivity analysis

Unit V                Transportation problem :Starting solutions. North-west corner Rule     – lowest cost methods – Vogels approximation method, MODI Method, Minimization and Maximization problem

Unit VI              Assignment problem :Hungarian method (Minimization and Maximization)

Travelling salesman problem :Branch & Bound technique, Hungarian method

Unit VII             Sequencing Problem :2 machines n jobs ,3 machines n jobs , n machines m jobs

Unit VIII           PERT and CPM :Arrow network ,Time estimates, earliest expected   time, latest allowable  occurrence  time,  latest  allowable  occurrence  time  and  slack   time,

 Critical  path  ,Probability  of  meeting  scheduled  date  of  completion  of project

,Calculation of CPM network ,Various floats for activities ,Project crashing

Unit IX              Replacement theory :Replacement of items that deteriorate ,

Replacement of items that fail group replacement and individual replacement.

Unit X                Decision Theory: Classification of Decisions, Steps in decision theory approach, Decision making under certainty, Decision making under uncertainty, Decision making under risk, Decision making under conflict, SIMONS’s Model

3 Hrs.


6 Hrs.


Unit XI             Game theory: Two person Zero sum games, Solving simple games                             2 Hrs.

Instructions for Students’ Assignments: Each candidate will submit a journal which will have case studies on Decision Theory, PERT-CPM and Replacement theory.



  1. Hillier F., and Lieberman, G.J. “Introduction to Operation Research”, Holden Day
  2. Operations Research Applications and Algorithms Waynel L. Winston Thomson
  3. Kambo, N.S., “Mathematical Programming Techniques”, McGraw Hill
  4. Operations Research : Principles and Practice 2nd edition Ravindran Wiley Production
  5. Operations Research, 1e, Prasad, Cengage Learning
  6. Optimization methods K.V. Mital& Mohan New Age
  7. KantiSwaroop, Gupta P.K. Man Mohan, “Operations Research”, Sultan Chand and Sons
  8. Taha, H.A. “Operations Research – An Introduction”, McMillan Publishing Company, NY
  9. Operation Research – S.D. Sharma
  10. Operations Research by P. K. Gupta &Hira S. Chand
  11. Principles of Operation Research ( with applications to managerial decisions) – H.M Wagher, PHI, New Delhi
  12. Operation Research –Ravindran